top of page

A chronology of the Land of Israel

Here is a brief chronology (or timeline) of the Land of Israel, with examples of sites that are related to each period of time. For some events, links are also provided to my more complete chronological study for those interested in further details.


- Until ~12000 years ago: Stone Age, Paleolithic  --  Paleolithic hunters' camps in the Jordan Valley 

~12000 years ago: Natufian culture, caves, cult of the dead  --  Nahal Me'arot (Mount Carmel)

- 11500- years ago: Neolithic, first settlements, domestication  --  Jericho: Tell al-Sultan

- 5800-3600 BCE: Chalcolithic, copper, clay tools, ossuaries  --  Golan, Peki'in, Ein Gedi (temple), Arava (temple of panthers)

licensed tour guide Israel


- 3600-2000 BCE, Early Bronze (EB): first city-states, housing with mud-bricks, water systems, colored art in clay, burial  --   

  Tel Arad, Golan "Stonehenge", Megiddo, & more

- 2000-1550 BCE, Middle Bronze (MB), Hittite rule over Canaan: fortified city-states (strong walls with glacis, gates)  -- 

  Maritime cities: Akko, Jaffa,...  Larger cities: Ashkelon, Hatzor, Megiddo, Gezer,...

    ~ 1700- BCE: in Bible, Patriarchs period until Jacob in Egypt (1520)  --  Hebron (Tel Rumeidah, Machpelah)

- 1550-1200 BCE, Late Bronze (LB), Egyptian rule  --  Uru-Salem (Jerusalem), Jaffa, Tel Afek, Beth-shean, Megiddo,...

    - Bible: the Hebrews are in Egypt from the start of the 18th Dynasty

    - The Exodus: ca. 1300 BCE, at the end of the 18th Dynasty

    - The 19th Dynasty battles vs. the Hittites; the Hebrews in desert

    - ~1265 BCE: Bible, start of the conquest of Canaan  --  Jericho Tell al-Sultan, Hatzor, Gezer, Judean Lowlands,...

licensed tour guide Israel


Drastic increase of the number of villages in Judea & Samaria, new type of city walls, use of cisterns, new style of diet, of cult, etc. First use of Iron in tools, weapons, etc.  --  Canaanite cities passed to Israelite rule: Hatzor, Megiddo, Gezer, ...

- 1200-586 BCE: Biblical settlement of the 12 tribes, followed by the Unified Monarchy (Saul, David, Solomon) then by the schism into two kingdoms (of Israel in the North and of Judea in the South)

   Jerusalem: City of David, Ophel, burial sites  --   Southern fortresses: Lachish, Azekah, Tel Arad,...

   Samaria, capital of the North, destroyed in 722 BCE by Sargon II

   Jerusalem: Hezekiah water tunnel, Broad Wall

   Judean cities are destroyed by the Assyrians (Sennacherib) in 701 BCE, but Jerusalem and the Judean kingdom remain

- 586 BCE: Nebuchadnezzar destroys Jerusalem, its Temple, and exiles the Judeans to Babylon and the rest flee to Egypt

- as the Land of Israel is emptied from Israelites, Samaritans settle in the North, Idumeans (Edom) in the South up to Judean Lowlands, Sidon and Tyre also trade in the region from the Israelite coast  --  Mount Gerizim (Sichem/Nablus), Maresha, Dor,...

licensed tour guide Israel


- 539 BCE: Cyrus the Great conquers Babylon and allow the Judeans to return to their land and rebuild their Temple

- 516 BCE: dedication of the Second Temple

- 444 BCE: Nehemiah repairs the walls of Jerusalem  --  Jerusalem: City of David area G (wall of Nehemiah)

- 438 BCE: Ezra reforms the religion, seals the Jewish Bible (Tanach)  --  Jewish villages with Mikve (ritual bath) for purification

- Phoenicians are given the Land of Israel's coastline by the Persians

- 333 BCE: Alexander the Great conquers the Land of Israel  -- Tel Afek: Alexander meets with Simon the Just 

licensed tour guide Israel


- 323 BCE: Alexander dies in Babylon; his empire is split between its generals; Ptolemy takes Egypt and the Land of Israel, Seleucus takes Syria until Babylonia - Hellenistic culture expands as "civilized"  --  New cities ("polis"), built as a grid with right-angle streets: Scythopolis (Beth-shean), Ptolemais (Akko),...

- 250 BCE: the Bible is translated into Greek (the Septuagint)

- ~200 BCE: the Seleucids conquers the Land of Israel from Ptolemy  --  Banyas (decisive battle of Panias)

- 172 BCE: Antiochus IV Epiphanes spoils the Temple of Jerusalem

- 167 BCE: the Maccabees start the revolt against the Seleucids

- 164 BCE: Judah Maccabee frees Jerusalem, restores the Temple  --  The Menorah becomes symbol of Jewish Nation's renewal

licensed tour guide Israel


- 142 BCE: Simon gains independence, starts Hasmonean dynasty -- Jerusalem: Hasmonean wall; Tombs of the Maccabees

- 135 BCE: John Hyrcanus conquers and converts Idumea  --  Maresha (ancestors of Herod are a rich family from Maresha)

- 105 BCE: Aristobulus conquers Iturea (northern part of Israel)

- 104 BCE: Alexander Janneus conquers Gaza and Nabatean trade  --  Largest extension of the Hasmonean kingdom

-   76 BCE: regency of Salome, widow of Alexander Janneus

-   63 BCE: Salome's two sons fight over succession; Roman General, Pompey, intervenes and finally rules

licensed tour guide Israel


- 57 BCE: Rome imposes its rule over Judea; divides the land

- 42 BCE: Herod named by Rome as governor of Galilee

- 40 BCE: the Parthians (Persia) helps Hasmonean prince to reconquer Jerusalem; Herod flees to Masada then to Rome

- 37 BCE: with help of Roman legion, Herod reconquers the land

- 31 BCE: battle of Actium: Octave defeats Mark Antony & Cleopatra

- 27 BCE: Octave becomes the first Roman Emperor, Augustus

- 25 BCE: Herod honours the new Caesar with city and buildings

   Caesarea (new maritime city), Banyas, Omrit: pagan temples dedicated to Augustus

   Fortresses:  Masada, Herodion, Alexandrium (Sartaba),...

- 20 BCE: in Jerusalem, Herod expands the Second Temple, adds water aqueducts, expands walls, builds royal palace  --    Jerusalem (Temple Mount, Herodian Quarter)

- 4 BCE: death of Herod in Jericho, burial in Herodion  --  Jericho (Herod's winter palace), Herodion (tomb)

- 4 BCE: Rome divides his realm between his sons and the Decapolis

- 4 CE: rebellion of Sepphoris against Antipas rule; start of the Sicarii

- 6 CE: Archaleus is exiled: Judea becomes Roman province; capital, Caesarea; census of Quirinius; birth of Jesus (Luke)

   Caesarea: the governor's palace, 1st aqueduct

- 26 CE: Pontius Pilate becomes Prefect of Judea  --  Caesarea: the Pilatus stone

- 30 CE: Jesus is "baptized" in the Jordan and starts its ministry  -- Qasr al-Yahud: baptismal site (see page on Jesus' footsteps)

- 33 CE: Jesus is crucified in Jerusalem; his body is put in a cave  --  Jerusalem: Holy Sepulcher, Garden of the Tomb

- 41 CE: Agrippa, Herod's grandson, builds the Northern wall  --  Jerusalem: the Third Wall 

- 45 CE: famine in Judea, Queen Helene of Adiabene in Jerusalem  --  Jerusalem: the Tomb of the Kings

- 66 CE: the revolt of the Jews against Rome starts  --  Caesarea: ancient synagogue where  the revolt began

- 68 CE: Roman general Vespasian starts the campaign vs. Judea

- 69 CE: Vespasian is chosen Emperor

- 70 CE: his son Titus destroys Jerusalem and its Temple  --  Jerusalem: Davidson Center, Herodian Quarter, the Burnt House

- 71-73 CE: siege and fall of the last Judean bastions  --  Herodion, Macchaerus (in Jordan), Masada

licensed tour guide Israel


- 117: revolt and capture of Lydda; Sanhedrin moves North  --  Lod / Lydda: tomb of Gamliel II ; Beth-shearim: Sanhedrin

- 130-135: revolt of Bar Kochba; Judea is destroyed, Jews expelled  --  Herodion, Judean sites, Judean desert (caves)

- 135: Emperor Hadrian renames Judea as Palestinea and Jerusalem as Aelia Capitolina; it becomes a Roman city

   Jerusalem: Roman Cardo, gates (Neapolis, Ecce Homo) ;  Caesarea: the 2nd aqueduct - Beth-guvrin

- 200: completion of the Mishna by Judah the Prince --  Sepphoris: Roman city, Jewish quarter; Beth-shearim, necropolis

- 240: the Hexapla is composed by Origen in Caesarea  -- Caesarea: Origen and his six translations of the Bible

- 285: Diocletian emperor; persecutes the Christians; desert fortresses in the East (limes arabicus); 10th legion moved to Eilat

   Scythopolis (Beth-shean) and Caesarea: 2 capitals

- 301: Armenia is the first nation to adopt Christianity  --  Jerusalem: Armenian Quarter

- 324: Constantine becomes Emperor; authorizes Christianity

licensed tour guide Israel


- 325: Council of Nicea; first Christian doctrines to shape the religion

- 326: Helena, Contantine's mother, visits the Holy Land and builds the first 4 churches to mark Jesus' footsteps

   Jerusalem (Holy Sepulcher, Eleona the Ascension), Hebron (Elonei Mamre), Bethlehem (the Nativity)

- 386: Jerome translates the Bible into Latin, the Vulgate  --  Bethlehem: the cave of St Jerome

- 394: John II, bishop of Jerusalem, opens the basilica of Hagia Sion  --  Jerusalem (Mount Sion), Beit-Jamel (proto-martyr)

- 395: Emperor Theodosius, Christianity becomes sole religion

- 400: completion of the Talmud of Jerusalem in Tiberias  -- Tiberias: tomb of Rabbi Meir ha-Ness, Hamat Tiberias

- 431: council of Ephesus; Mary becomes Theo-tokos (God bearer) 

- 444: Empress Eudocia builds in Jerusalem -- Jerusalem: wall around Mount Sion, chapels of Siloa, St Stephen (proto-martyr)

- 451: council of Chalcedon, dio-physis; split with Oriental Churches  --  Judean desert: a number of monasteries; Kathisma

- 451: Jerusalem becomes a patriarchy

- 476: Fall of the Western Roman Empire

- 542: Emperor Justinian builds in Jerusalem and Bethlehem  -- Jerusalem (Byzantine Cardo with Madaba map repro, Nea church) ;  Bethlehem (Church of the Nativity)

- 560: Madaba map (in Jordan) shows the Holy Land of this time

- 614: Sassanid (Persian) conquest of the Holy Land  --  Many churches are destroyed and never rebuilt

- 628: Emperor Heraclius reconquers the Holy Land

- 636-637: the Arabs conquer the Holy Land, except Caesarea

- 642: capture of Caesarea by the Arabs

licensed tour guide Israel


- 657: Muawiyah starts the Umayyad dynasty; civil war against Ali & his son Hussein; start of Sunni / Shiite schism

- 661: Muawiyah (Sunni) is chosen as Caliph in Jerusalem, murder of Ali (Shiite)

- 680: battle of Kerbala; Hussein son of Ali is killed; Mecca and Medina are shut to Sunni pilgrims (Hajj is no longer possible)

- 691: the Dome of the Rock is built  --  Jerusalem: Temple Mount (Dome of the Rock)

- 705: the mosque of el-Aqsa is built; the Umayyads made Jerusalem a Holy City to allow the Hajj (pilgrimage) there --

          Jerusalem: Temple Mount (el Aqsa), Davidson Center (ruins of Umayyad palaces, destroyed by earthquake of 749)

- 711: the Umayyads conquer Spain, after Northern Africa

- 715: new capital in the Land of Israel, Ramle (means "sands", the only city built by Muslims) -- Ramle: the White Tower

- 717: Pact of Omar II introduces the status of dhimmi for Jews and Christians

- 724: reign of Hisham  --  Ramle, ruins of the mosque ; Jericho, Hisham Palace

- 749: powerful earthquake in Galilee  --  signs of destruction in Beth-shean, Hippos-Sussita, Hatzor, Tiberias, Jerusalem,...

- 750: end of the Umayyad dynasty (except Spain)  --  Tel Afek, the Umayyad rulers were murdered by the Abbasid

licensed tour guide Israel


- 754: Caliph al-Mansour, builds the Abbasid empire, and founds Bagdad in 762; use of minarets next to mosques


- 770: ruling from Cairo, the Fatimid (they are Shiite) conquer the Land of Israel from the Abbasid

- 786: rule of Caliph Arun al-Rashid; Golden era of Islam  --  Ramle: the Pools of Arches

licensed tour guide Israel


- 868: from Egypt, the Tulunid conquer the Land of Israel, build seashore fortresses  --  Ashdod-Yam, Arsuf, Akko,...

- 905: the Abbasid reconquer the Land of Israel, end the Tulunid rule


- 935: the Ikhshidid, allies of the Abassid, rule over the Land of Israel


- 970: the Fatimid reconquer the Land of Israel

- 996: Caliph al-Hakim rule; start of the cursing of Aisha and the Sunni

- 1009: al-Hakim destroys the churches of the Holy Land as well as the Holy Sepulcher; one of the causes of the Crusades

- 1016: al-Hakim declares himself as the Mahdi (the Redemptor of the Shiite religion)

- 1021: al-Hakim disappears (murdered?); his supporters, the Druze, flee from Egypt to Lebanon and start their secret religion

- 1033: powerful earthquake damages Ramle and destroys the mosque of el-Aqsa, which is later rebuilt half its original size
- 1054: the Great Schism, between Orthodox and Catholic

- 1059: the Byzantine are allowed to repair/rebuild the Holy Sepulcher, and are also asked to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem

- 1068: another earthquake utterly destroys Ramle


- 1073: the Seljuk, coming from Asia, conquer the Land of Israel but fail against Ashkelon which remains Fatimid (until 1153)

- 1097: the First Crusade reaches Constantinople and defeats the Seljuk in Asia Minor, takes Edessa

- 1098: weakened in the North, the Seljuk lose the Land of Israel and Jerusalem to the Fatimid

licensed tour guide Israel


- 1099: the First Crusade conquers Jerusalem then the rest of the Holy Land (fail in Ashkelon); Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem

   Jerusalem: citadel of David, Muristan (Hospitaliers), markets, the Cenacle, Monastery of the Cross

- 1100: Tancred conquers the Galilee and makes it a principality  --  Nazareth: the church of Annunciation - Safed: the fortress

- 1119: creation of the Templars Order in el-Aqsa  --  Jerusalem: the rosace in el-Aqsa

- 1138: Queen Melisande builds Santa Anna church  --  Jerusalem: Santa Anna complex, with pools of Bethesda

- 1141: King Fulk builds fortresses  --  Jibelin (Yavneh), Blanche-Garde (Tel Tzafit), Le Toron (Latrun),...

- 1143: Fulk dies, Melisande starts regency 

- 1144: the Seljuk reconquer Odessa; cause of the Second Crusade that fails

- 1149: Melisande builds in Jerusalem  --  Holy Sepulcher: the Catholicon - Tomb of the Virgin - Chapel of the Ascension

- 1152: End of Melisande regency; her son Baudouin III conquers Ashkelon from the Fatimid in 1153

- 1154: the Seljuk conquer Damascus, now threaten the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem

- 1162: Baudouin III dies, his son Almaric reinforces the fortresses in the Holy Land

- 1165: the Jewish traveler Benjamin de Tuleda visits and describes the Holy Land 

- 1171: the Seljuk general, Saladin, takes control of Egypt from the weakened Fatimid 

- 1174: Almaric dies of leprosy; his son Baudouin IV is 13 years old and also a leper

- 1177: Baudouin IV defeats Saladin at the battle of Montgisard  --  Tel Gezer (Montgisard)

- 1186: Guy de Lusignan becomes King; the Crusaders break the truce and Saladin starts to campaign from the North

- 1187: Battle of the Horns of Hattin, the Christian army is utterly destroyed  --  Sepphoris, Tiberias, Hattin

- 1187: Jerusalem surrenders to Saladin; end of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem; only the city of Tyre remains Crusader

licensed tour guide Israel


- 1188: siege of Acre (Muslim-held) starts 

- 1189: Belvoir, the last Crusader fortress in the Land of Israel surrenders to Saladin  --  Belvoir

- 1191: the Third Crusade arrive in the Land of Israel (French king Philip Augustus and English king Richard Lionheart)

- 1191: Captures of Acre, Arsuf, Jaffa, Ashkelon, but failure to reach Jerusalem 

- 1192: Acre agreement between Saladin and Richard: the Crusaders keep the coastal cities and pilgrims can pray in Jerusalem

- 1192: the Teutonic Order (German) is founded in Acre

- 1193: Saladin dies; his two sons share the Ayyub realm: Egypt and Syria-Palestina

- 1219: the Ayyub ruler destroys the walls of Jerusalem, by fear that the city would fall into Crusader hands again

- 1221: Galilee fortresses are sold to the Teutonic Order  --  Montfort

- 1228: Sixth Crusade, Holy Emperor Frederick II arrives to Acre in the Holy Land

- 1229: Jaffa Treaty between Frederick and Ayyub leader el-Kamel ; gives access to Jerusalem for pilgrims

- 1229: Frederick II is proclaimed King of Jerusalem and returns to his realm

- 1241: the Templars break the truce with the Ayyub and launch a campaign against Egypt

licensed tour guide Israel


- 1244: the Tartars come from Asia and capture Jerusalem

- 1244: battle of La Forbie, Mameluke Baybars leads the Ayyub army and defeats the Crusaders

- 1248: Seventh Crusade, King Louis IX of France attacks Egypt

- 1250: Louis IX is taken prisoner and released after heavy ransom; stays in the Holy Land for 4 years

     Reinforces the fortresses along the coast: Jaffa, Caesarea, Acre


- 1260: the Mongols had conquered Asia and enter Jerusalem; they are stopped by Baybars at the battle of El-Jalut (Ein Harod)


- 1260: after his victory, Baybars takes over Egypt, Syria and the Land of Israel (except the Crusaders' fortresses)

- 1263: Baybars conquers Crusader strongholds in the Land of Israel  --  Nazareth, Arsuf, Caesarea, Safed, Ramle, Jaffa,...

- 1267: Nahmanides (Ramban) setlles in Jerusalem, re-opens a synagogue with Jews from Nablus  --  Ramban's synagogue

- 1269: Baybars builds Nebi Musa (tomb of Moses) in the Judean desert near Jericho  --  Nebi Musa

- 1272: Baybars signs a truce with the Crusaders; builds in the Holy Land  --  Safed (fort, red mosque), Jerusalem Lions' Gate

- 1279: reign of Mameluke Qalawun, builds over 100 structures in Jerusalem  -- Temple Mount, fountains, palaces, shrines,...

- 1283: Truce with the Crusaders who only retain Acre in the Holy Land

- 1291: the Christians break the truce in Acre; Mameluke conquers the city; end of Crusader presence in the Holy Land -- Acre

- 1320: reign of Mameluke governor Tanwiz in Jerusalem  --  palaces, cotton market,...

- 1333: agreement between Mameluke and Rome; ends the Crusades; Franciscan Order in charge of guarding the holy sites

- 1453: the Ottoman (Asia Minor) conquer Constantinople; end of Byzantium (Eastern Roman Empire)

- 1485: Jewish traveler Ovadia de Bartenura visits and describes the Holy Land

- 1492: Jews are expelled from Spain; given refuge in Ottoman empire by Selim

licensed tour guide Israel


- 1517: Selim, Ottoman ruler, conquers the Land of Israel and Egypt

- 1520: Soliman the Magnificent, Selim's son, starts a long peaceful reign of 46 years

- 1522: Jewish traveler Moshe Basula describes the 4 only cities where Jews could settle -- Jerusalem, Hebron, Tiberias, Safed

- 1535: Jewish scholars start mysticism movement in Safed  --  Safed: old cemetery and synagogues of Ari,...

- ~1540: Soliman rebuilds the walls of Jerusalem, and they still stand today  --  Jerusalem walls and gates

- 1553: Dona Grazia given right to make Tiberias a Jewish autonomous city; builds walls  --  Tiberias
- 1570: the "Ari" (Isaac Luria) lives in Safed for 2 years and teaches the Kabbalah  --  Jerusalem Museum of Old Yishuv, Safed

- 1571: naval victory of the Christians in Lepanto vs. the Ottomans ; Ottomans set a new regional system to raise taxes

- 1575: Joseph Caro dies in Safed; he authored the Shulchan Aruch  --  Safed: house and tomb of Caro 

- 1586: Jews of Jerusalem establish the 4 Sephardi synagogues  --  Jerusalem Jewish Quarter

- 1602: Druze "vali" Fahkr al-Din takes Safed and massacres its Jewish population

- 1616: under Fahkr al-Din's rule, the Druze found over 30 villages in Galilee

- 1621: ibn Farukh rules in Jerusalem; cruelty towards the Jewish population until his death in 1638

- 1666: Sabbatai Zvi starts his Messianic journey from Gaza

- 1700: Aliyah (return of Jews to the Land of Israel) of 1000 Hasidim with Yehuda ha-Hasid; setlle in Jerusalem

- 1720: Arab debtors destroy the Hurva, synagogue of the Hasidim; they are forbidden to return to Jerusalem -- the Hurva

- 1730: Bedouin Daher el-Omar rules in Galilee; he was born in Sepphoris where he later rebuilt the Crusader fort -- Sepphoris

- 1742: Daher invites Abulafia to Tiberias to restore the Jewish community; builds the city walls --- Tiberias

- 1743: Moshe Luzzato (the Ramhal) stays in Acre until his death there in 1746  --  Acre: the synagogue of Luzzatto

- ~1750: Daher builds in Galilee  --  Tiberias, Haifa, Deir-Hana, Shefaram, walls - Acre: his palace

- 1775: Daher is killed by Ottoman army, and replaced by Djezzar Pacha (a Bosnian Muslim) who rules from Acre

- 1799: campaign of Bonaparte in the Land of Israel -- Ramle, Jaffa, Qaqun, Dor, Haifa, Acre, Afula, Bridge of Jacob's daughters

- 1806: Abu-Nabut becomes 'sanjak' of the coastline from Jaffa to Gaza -- Jaffa: Abu Nabut sabil (fountain)

- 1808: Aliyah of Vilna Gaon followers (the 'Perushim'); settle in Jerusalem and Safed

- 1811: Muhammad Ali seizes power in Egypt and massacres the Mameluke

- 1820: Aliyah from Jews of the Maghreb 


- 1831: Muhammad Ali and his son Ibrahim Pacha conquer the Land of Israel from the Ottoman ; will lead to the Oriental Crisis 

- 1834: Peasants' Revolt in the Land of Israel; after the repression, Muhammad Ali brings population from his realm to this land  

            --  new villages are formed in the coastline and the North: Abu Kabir (near Jaffa), Umm al-Fahm (Wadi Ara), ... 

- 1837: Galilee earthquake; Safed and Tiberias are badly damaged with great loss of lives; Jews from Safed settle in Jerusalem

- 1839: William Tanner arrives to Jerusalem as the first Consul of Britain ; other Western powers follow 

- 1840: Damascus Affair, blood libel accusation against the Jews; Jewish and non-Jewish philanthropists in the West start promoting the need for Jews to return to their homeland and avoid persecutions in the Arab lands


- 1840: the Oriental Crisis end with the bombardment of Acre by Britain; the Egyptian rules leave and the Ottoman regain rule

- 1841: Protestants are allowed to settle in the Holy Land for the first time; first Anglican/Lutheran church in Jerusalem

            --  Jerusalem: Christ/Emmanuel Church in the Old City, Protestant cemetery on Mount Sion, Bishop Gobat school, ...

- 1844: first US Consul in Jerusalem: Warder Cresson ; but his office is cancelled and he converts to Judaism in 1848

- 1846: second British Consul: James Finn; he authored several books on the Land of Israel and opened Abraham's Vineyards to provide works to Jews of the city  --  Jerusalem: Geula neighborhood 

- 1853: 'Status Quo' decree ('firman') in the Holy Land to resolve disputes among Orthodox and Catholic over the holy sites

            --  in Jerusalem: Holy Sepulcher, Tomb of the Virgin, Chapel of the Ascension (dispute with Muslims)

            --  in Bethlehem: the basilica of the Nativity, the Milk Grotto, Shepherds' Fields

- 1854-1856: the Crimean War, started because of the Christian disputes over the Holy Sepulcher

- 1857: Moses Montefiore, a philanthropist British Jew, builds a windmill outside the walls of Jerusalem -- Yemin Moshe

- 1860: Lebanon Civil War: the Druzes settle in the Golan Heights  -- Majdal Shams, Mas'ade,... 

- 1860-1865: Montefiore (UK) and Touro (US) build the first Jewish neighborhood outside the walls -- Mishkenot Shaananim

- 1864: the 'Perushim' rebuild the Hurva synagogue -- Jerusalem: the Hurva

- 1868: the German Templars religious group settle in the Land of Israel 

            -- the "German colonies" in Haifa (1868) and Jaffa (1869), Sarona (1871), Jerusalem (1873) and also in Galilee

- 1870: opening the first Jewish agricultural school by Alliance organisation: Mikveh Israel  --  Mikveh Israel, near Jaffa

- 1873: the Sultan offers political asylum to the Circassians (Sunni Muslims) in the Land of Israel  --  Kfar Qama, Rihaniya 

- 1874: a 100-flats neighborhood in Jerusalem is the fifth Jewish one being built outside the walls  --  Mea Shearim

- 1875+: more Jewish neighborhoods are started further west of Jerusalem  --  Nahlaot, Mahanei Yehuda market

- 1878: Ottoman political asylum is given to foreign Muslims : Bosnians (Caesarea), Moroccans,... Jews are not allowed

- 1878: first 'moshava' (agricultural village) built on land (swamps) acquired by Jews  --  Petakh Tikva

- 1878: Safed Jews acquired land near their damaged city to resettle : Gei Oni  --  Rosh Pina museum

- 1878: Naftali Imber writes first draft of ha-Tikva which will become Israel's National Anthem -- Rishon le-Tzion museum

- 1881: Aliya of Jews from Yemen; they settle in Silwan village, on the slopes of the Mount of Olives

- 1882: "First" Aliya, so-called by the people of the 2nd Aliya; agricultural villages  --  Zikron Yaakov museum of 1st Aliya

- 1886: Foundation of Neve Tzedek, Jewish neighborhood "out of the walls" of Jaffa  -- Tel Aviv: Neve Tzedek

- 1892: opening of the Jaffa-Jerusalem raliway, the first in the Middle-East  -- Jaffa, Jerusalem: the old stations

- 1892: opening of a glass factory (for wine bottles) in Tantura, with support from Baron de Rothschild -- Dor: Misgaga museum

- 1894: the Dreyfus Affair (click here) starts in France; Theodor Herzl, Jewish journalist from Austria, is present in Paris

- 1896: Theodor Herzl publishes 'The Jewish State' as a solution to the Jewish persecutions -- Jerusalem: Herzl museum

- 1898: visit of Kaiser Wilhelm II to the Land of Israel, meeting with Herzl (click here) -- Mikve Israel ; Jerusalem: Muristan

- 1901: 25th anniversary of Sultan Abdul Hamid II ; 100+ tower clocks are erected in the empire, 6 of them in the Land of Israel

            --  Jaffa (1903), Haifa, Acre, Safed, Nablus (1906), Jerusalem (1907) ; Jerusalem clock no longer exists

- 1902: Herzl publishes a second book, the Altneuland (the Old New Land); the theme will be used to name 'Tel Aviv'
- 1904: Second Aliya starts with idealist young single immigrants who flee from pogroms ; implementation of Socialist ideals

- 1904: the Valley Train in the Jezreel Valley opens, connects Haifa to Damascus for the Hajj  -- take the train Haifa - Beth-shean

- 1905: Jewish acquisition of the first "fertile" land, in the Jezreel valley around Afula  --  Merhavia (cooperative)

- 1907: creation of the first Jewish defense group (Bar Giora) for agricultural villages -- Kfar Tavor 

- 1907: successful one-year trial of the first "collective", the basic foundation of the future Kibbutz  --  Sejera

- 1909: founding of Tel Aviv  --  Tel Aviv: exhibits in the Meir-Shalom tower

- 1912: opening of the Technion in Haifa, dispute about the teaching language, Hebrew wins  -- Haifa: Madatech (old Technion)

- 1914: start of WW-I; the Turks expell to Egypt Jews of the 1st and 2nd aliya (alien residents) ; several join British Forces

- 1915: Nili group is formed to spy against the Turks and favour the British conquest  --  Zichron Yaakov, Nili museum

- 1916: MacMahon / Hussein letters to promise an Arab kingdom over the Holy Land - Sykes-Picot secret agreement

- 1917, 2nd November: Balfour declaration to favour a Jewish homeland, recognition of the Zionist Congress as representative

licensed tour guide Israel


- 1917: British conquest of the Holy Land; Beer-Sheva on 31 October, Jerusalem in December 1917

- 1919: Third Aliya, Polish & Russian Jews flee the Russian Revolution & civil war; first ship to arrive: the Ruslan

- 1920: San Remo conference​ gives mandate to France over a large part of the Middle East and to Britain over Greater Palestine

- 1920: fall of Tel Hai and death of Trumpeldor  --  Tel Hai, museum ; Kfar Giladi: cemetery, Roaring Lion monument
- 1921: foundation of the first kibbutz (Kfar Harod) and first Moshav (Nahalal)

- 1921: Arab riots against the Jews; many attacks in cities and villages across the land  -- Tel-Aviv: Trumpeldor cemetery

- 1922: British first "White Paper" to restrict Jewish immigration and please the Arabs

- 1923: Britain takes 2/3 of its mandated territory and creates Transjordan to give to Abdallah who is made King

- 1924: Paulet-Newcombe agreement fixes the border between the British and French mandates -- Mount Adir panorama

- 1924: Fourth Aliya, from Poland & Hungary, city dwellers, starts new styles  --  Tel Aviv: eclectic architecture

- 1925: opening of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, attended by Balfour, Allenby,... --  Mount Scopus campus

- 1927: Jordan Valley earthquake, damages in Jerusalem (el-Aqsa, Old City) and elsewhere

- 1928: British allow Jews to pray at the Western Wall but only on Yom Kippur; the Mufti claims the Jews want the Temple Mount

- 1929: Arab riots caused by the Mufti -- Hebron: museum of the Jewish community massacred by the pogrom of 1929

- 1929: Britain publishes a 2nd White Paper to forbid Jews to settle near/in Arab areas

- 1931: founding of the Haganah, defense group of Jewish settlements -- Tel Aviv: Haganah museum

- 1933: British build the Haifa harbour, pipelines and oil refineries for the oil newly discovered in the Middle-East  -- Haifa

- 1933: Fifth Aliya, Jews from Germany who escape after Hitler's rise to power and racial laws 

            -- Tefen Park: German-speaking Jewry Heritage Museum; Nahariya: Beth Liberman museum; Jerusalem: Rehavia; 

                Tel Aviv: Bauhaus architecture in the White City

- 1934: Jabotinsky quits the Zionist Organisation and forms the Revisionist Party

- 1936: Arab Revolt against the British rule; it was led by the Mufti of Jerusalem and lasted until the start of WW-II

           British response: building of 62 fortified police stations (the Tegart forts: Nahalal, Latrun, Koah, Yoav,...) and pillboxes

           Jewish response: 57 new villages built on the Tower and Stockade approach: Nir David, Kfar Hittim, Hanita,...

- 1936: opening of the Tel Aviv harbour in the North of the city, after Arabs prohibited the Jews from using Jaffa harbour

- 1937: Peel Commission to Mandated Palestine recommends, for the first time, a partition plan; Arab riots continue

- 1937: foundation of the 'Etzel' (a.k.a. Irgun) to oppose the policy of restraint towards British rule

- 1938: opening of the Reading power station north of Tel Aviv to provide electricity to the city -- Tel Aviv: Reading

- 1939: construction of the first airport by the British, in anticipation of need in case of war -- Lod airport 

- 1939: to calm the Arabs, Britain issues the (infamous) 3rd White Paper: Jewish immigration and land buy drastically restricted

- 1939: illegal Jewish immigration starts, organised by the Haganah with the help of newly formed Mossad

- 1939: start of WW-II; all Jewish organisations cooperate with Britain in the war effort; the Mufti forms Arab units for Hitler

- 1940: the 'Lehi' (the so-called "Stern Gang") breaks from the Irgun to continue fight the British rule in the Land of Israel

- 1941: the Land of Israel is at threat by Lebanon in the North (with Vichy pro-Nazi rule) and by Rommel corps in North Africa

            the British forms the Palmach, elite Jewish units to combat the threats if the Land of Israel is attacked

- 1942: Abraham Stern, founder of the Lehi, is localised in Jaffa and murdered by British police -- Jaffa: Lehi museum

- 1944: turning of the war in favour of the Allies, the Etzel/Irgun cancels its truce with the British rule -- Tel Aviv: Etzel museum 

- 1945: end of WW-II; 6 million Jews murdered in the Holocaust, 600,000 Jews live in the Land of Israel

- 1945: elections in the UK; the Labour party announces they will cancel the White Paper; they get elected and maintain it

- 1945: Truman appeals to Britain to allow 100,000 Jewish refugees from Nazi camps to immigrate; Britain refuses

- 1945: the Jewish organisations intensify their actions against the British  -- Jerusalem: museum of the underground prisoners

- 1947: new partition plan proposed by UN Commission, put to General Assembly vote on 29 November; vote in favour of it

- 1948: creation of the State of Israel (14 May, 5 Iyyar); immediately attacked by 5 Arab countries: War of Independence starts

licensed tour guide Israel
bottom of page